The elements of the periodic table

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The periodic table

Everything we know is built on the elements of the periodic table. We also consist of these elements and some are vital for us to be able to live. Read here about some of the elements of this system and what they are used for.

Periodic Table of Elements

Almost everyone is familiar with the periodic table of elements Binas, which we used to get acquainted with in high school. This system is important as the individual elements are depicted and explained herein. Important information can be found here and the system can also be used for many types of calculations. The following elements are part of this system and will be explained in more detail.

1. Hydrogen

  • Number 1
  • Symbol: H
  • Group 1
  • Period: 1

This element is one of the basic elements and part of many mixtures of elements. In its pure form, this element is non-toxic, odorless and invisible and a gas that is lighter than air. In extracted form, for example, it is an interesting new form of fuel.

2. Helium

  • Number 2
  • Symbol: Hey
  • Group: 18
  • Period: 1

This element is also very important to us and is a colorless noble gas. We know it from balloons and nitrous oxide, where it can be harmful to your health to a great extent. This is because it displaces the oxygen element in the body, which can have harmful consequences. However, it can be used for more purposes, such as for refrigerants and deep-sea diving.

3. Lithium

  • Number 3
  • Symbol: Li
  • Group 1
  • Period: 2

This element can be found in various types of medicines, where it counteracts depression and mood swings. It plays a role in the impulse transmission of the nerves that are disturbed in certain mental disorders. In ore mines it is extracted as salt and it is a natural substance. In the body, the substance mainly acts as a mood stabilizer.

4. Beryllium

  • Number: 4
  • Symbol: Be
  • Group: 2
  • Period: 2

This dark gray alkaline earth metal is less well known, but has an important function in the production of X-ray windows. The element has one of the highest melting points and is also not magnetic, a good conductor of heat, does not spark and it is quite stable. Mammals, including humans, do not need the element and it is one of the most toxic heavy metals. It can cause serious illness in humans, such as lung disease.

5. Drill

  • Number: 5
  • Symbol: B
  • Group: 13
  • Period: 2

This element is also called boron and is known for its application in the textile industry. However, it is also an important compound for fireworks and in the treatment of arthritis through neuron therapy. The element can also serve as rocket fuel, because of the large amount of energy released during its combustion.

6. Carbon

  • Number: 6
  • Symbol: C
  • Group: 14
  • Period: 2

This known element is the fourth most abundant in the universe. It is used for the production of fossil fuels and crude oil, in addition to which many plastics and expensive gemstones are made from it. The element is widely applicable due to its high thermal conductivity, chemical resistance and temperature resistance.

7. Nitrogen

  • Number: 7
  • Symbol: N
  • Group: 15
  • Period: 2

Also this chemical element belongs in the list of four most common elements. It is colorless, odorless and approximately 78 percent present in the air. The substance is not harmful in itself, but in combination with certain other substances, such as nitrogen oxides (NO) and ammonia (NH3).

8. Oxygen

  • Number: 8
  • Symbol: O
  • Group: 16
  • Period: 2

By this element, made by plants, we must live and in our body the element is converted into carbon dioxide. The number of purposes of the element is therefore very wide, which also includes oxygen therapies. In our body, the element is used for the functioning of muscles, the brain and the organs.

9. Fluorine

  • Number: 9
  • Symbol: F
  • Group: 17
  • Period: 2

As part of the halogens, this element does not occur in nature. It does have many compounds that are used for all kinds of things, but are sometimes also toxic, such as fluoride and difluor. The fluorocarbon compound is also used in extinguishing agents and to reinforce concrete.

10. Neon

  • Number: 10
  • Symbol: Ne
  • Group: 18
  • Period: 2

We are all familiar with neon lights, which can be used to brighten up parties and garments. However, it is also used for lightning catchers, television sets and wave measuring devices. This is also a colorless noble gas and literally means “new” in Greek.

11. Sodium

  • Number: 11
  • Symbol: Na
  • Group 1
  • Period: 3

This silver-colored alkali metal can also be used in combination with many other substances. It is an important substance in our body, as it must ensure a balanced fluid balance. It also contributes to healthy blood pressure. It is present in almost all foods and is also present in table salt (sodium chloride).

12. Magnesium

  • Number: 12
  • Symbol: Mg
  • Group: 2
  • Period: 3

This element is important for athletes in particular. This is because it is essential in bone and muscle formation. It also maintains proper functioning of the muscles. It is a mineral found in various foods, including grains, vegetables, dairy products and nuts.

13. Aluminum

  • Number: 13
  • Symbol: Al
  • Group: 13
  • Period: 3

Many food packaging materials are made from this substance, which is a silvery white metal. It conducts well and is very lightweight, up to 60 percent lighter than the iron element. However, it does not compromise on strength and it is also corrosion resistant and does not rust. This element is not rare, but winning it is a complicated and strenuous process.

14. Silicon

  • Number: 14
  • Symbol: Si
  • Group: 14
  • Period: 3

This is perhaps a lesser known element, but very important for our earth's crust, which consists of more than 25 percent. The element occurs in various forms in nature and is mainly found in bound form, including quartz and rock crystal.

15. Phosphorus

  • Number: 15
  • Symbol: P
  • Group: 15
  • Period: 3

This element first of all provides strength to our skeleton, but as a mineral it is also involved in the energy supply. It is also part of our DNA and is essential in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. This element is found in almost all foods.

16. Sulfur

  • Number: 16
  • Symbol: S
  • Group: 16
  • Period: 3

As a chemical compound, this element is common in our body, where our intestines produce it, for example. It is also essential in agriculture, where it is used in fertilizers and as a mildew control agent. In the past it was also used in matches and to smoke out wasp nests.

17. chlorine

  • Number: 17
  • Symbol: Cl
  • Group: 17
  • Period: 3

For jacuzzis and swimming pools, this element is used to ensure that the water remains transparent. This halogen serves as a disinfectant, where it works against disease-causing organisms in the water. It can be found in various places in the world and can form many connections.

18. Argon

  • Number: 18
  • Symbol: Ar
  • Group: 18
  • Period: 3

This noble gas can be used in the welding industry as a shielding gas and is used in high purity as a gas in laboratories. It must be handled carefully, because of its suffocating effect. Finally, it is used as a filler for incandescent lamps, where it prevents burnout of the filament.

19. Potassium

  • Number: 19
  • Symbol: K
  • Group 1
  • Period: 4

In addition to the sodium element, this element is also responsible for the fluid balance and blood pressure in our body, which can lower blood pressure. In addition, it ensures good conduction of nerve impulses and contraction of the muscles. Too little of this element in the blood can cause hypokalemia, leading to fatigue, constipation and muscle weakness.

20. Calcium

  • Number: 20
  • Symbol: Ca
  • Group: 2
  • Period: 4

This element is first and foremost essential for the strength of our bones and teeth. In addition, it helps against osteoporosis at a later age and is necessary for the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The element is also important in the clotting of blood and the transport of minerals in the body.

21. Scandium

  • Number: 21
  • Symbol: Sc
  • Group 3
  • Period: 4

It is not easy to isolate this element, but it is widely used in the production of LCD TVs and mobile phones. It can also be used for high-intensity lamps. The special thing about this element is that it dissolves poorly in acids. In the future, this element in an aluminum combination is expected to be important for the manufacture of fuel cells.

22. Titanium

  • Number: 22
  • Symbol: Ti
  • Group: 4
  • Period: 4

This element, also called titanium, is often compared to unprecedented strength. It is therefore as strong as steel, but 45 percent lighter. This makes it an interesting substance for many applications. It is the ninth most common element, but very expensive because of the complicated production process.

23. Vanadium

  • Number: 23
  • Symbol: V
  • Group: 5
  • Period: 4

In the past, this material was used to sharpen and strengthen swords, allowing it to split even a hair when dropped. Today, many cars are made from the element and is also ideal as a storage medium for excess, green energy.

24. Chrome

  • Number: 24
  • Symbol: Cr
  • Group 6
  • Period: 4

This silvery metal, also called chromium, plays an important role in how insulin works in carbohydrate metabolism. Chromium tablets are used as medicines for extra insulin release, but the element is also found in fruit, vegetables and whole grain products. It also acts as a catalyst in chemical reactions and causes the glass to have an emerald green color.

25. Manganese

  • Number: 25
  • Symbol: Mn
  • Group 7
  • Period: 4

This element is also important for our body, where it is essential for the formation of bone tissue and the metabolism of cholesterol, amino acids and carbohydrates. When there is oxidative stress, the element protects the cells of the body. The substance is found in fruits, grains and nuts.

26. Iron

  • Number: 26
  • Symbol: Fe
  • Group 8
  • Period: 4

This well-known element is used for many things, especially in the form of steel. It also plays an important role in the blood, since the protein hemoglobin is made up of it. This protein is again essential in blood transport. As a metal, this element is one of the best-known ferromagnets, which gives it magnetic properties.

27. Cobalt

  • Number: 27
  • Symbol: Co
  • Group: 9
  • Period: 4

This silver-colored transition metal means "evil gnome" in German. This is because the miners regularly found cobalt ore, which resembled many other ores and was misleading. This would be the fault of the evil goblins (gnomes). Nowadays the element is appreciated, for example for coloring glass and porcelain.

28. Nickel

  • Number: 28
  • Symbol: Ni
  • Group: 10
  • Period: 4

This element has also become an integral part of modern society. For example, it is used to make stainless steel, and it also contains coins. The element is extracted from nickel ores and is one of the four ferromagnetic metals.

29. Buyer

  • Number: 29
  • Symbol: Cu
  • Group: 11
  • Period: 4

This element is used for various interior products, such as lamps, planters and bowls. This is due to the red-brown color of the fabric, but also to its flexible and durable nature and its high conductivity of electricity and heat. Moreover, it gives a warm, beautiful look to products.

30. Zinc

  • Number: 30
  • Symbol: Zn
  • Group: 12
  • Period: 4

This element is very important for our body and there are also various nutritional supplements available to make up for deficiencies. It is involved in, among other things, metabolic processes, in the construction of proteins and the proper functioning of the immune system. Finally, it contributes to the growth and development of tissue.

31. Gallium

  • Number: 31
  • Symbol: Ga
  • Group: 13
  • Period: 4

Named after Gallia, France in Latin, this element is mainly used in alloys. It is used for the production of mirrors and the processing of glass and porcelain. This element is also incorporated in solar cells and thermometers intended for high temperatures.

32. Germanium

  • Number: 32
  • Symbol: Ge
  • Group: 14
  • Period: 4

This element belongs to the carbon group, through which silicon bonds are possible, and is a semiconductor. Because of this property, it is used for window material in spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In addition to being a semiconductor, this element also has a special cubic crystal structure.

33. Arsenic

  • Number: 33
  • Symbol: As
  • Group: 15
  • Period: 4

We know this element, also called arsenic, mainly because of its poisonous aspect. However, it is only toxic in combination with other substances, where it can even be fatal. For our body, this element is a heavy metal, so too much can be dangerous. A legal maximum amount has also been established.

34. Seleen

  • Number: 33
  • Symbol: Se
  • Group: 16
  • Period: 4

This element is also sometimes used by another name, which is selenium. This product is also well known as a food supplement, where it acts as a trace element on the liver and protects cells and red blood cells from damage. It is also in many foods, including meat, fish and plant products. Our body does not need much of this element.

35. Bromine

  • Number: 35
  • Symbol: Br
  • Group: 17
  • Period: 4

This fairly well-known halogen is first of all used as a disinfectant, just like the chlorine element. This element also reacts easily with other elements, making it applicable in agriculture and industry. Here it is used in pesticides, but also in perfumes, dyes and for photochemicals. Finally, it is an important component in fire retardants.

36. Krypton

  • Number: 36
  • Symbol: Kr
  • Group: 18
  • Period: 4

This element comes from the Greek “kryptos”, which means inflected. This name was given after the element was left over after removing other elements, making it appear hidden. It is used, among other things, in high-speed photographic flash units and in fluorescent lighting, as it glows just like the neon element. Finally, it can serve as a filling for insulated glass and in the medical world it contributes to nuclear medicine.

37. Rubidium

  • Number: 37
  • Symbol: Rb
  • Group 1
  • Period: 5

Rubidium is characterized by a slightly radioactive substance that is not dangerous in itself and quickly disappears from the body. In the medical world, it plays an important role in heart research. The element is injected via an IV and images are passed on through a PET scan.

38. Strontium

  • Number: 38
  • Symbol: Sr
  • Group: 2
  • Period: 5

This element may have a somewhat crazy name, but this silver-white alkaline earth metal is important in the production of the glass of color televisions. It is also used in magnet production, zinc refining and nuclear batteries. However, its industrial function does not end here.

39. Yttrium

  • Number: 39
  • Symbol: Y
  • Group 3
  • Period: 5

Yttrium is a silvery-white transition metal and plays an important role in radioembolization. This is a form of radiation that fights liver cancer through the blood. Yttrium helps to inhibit the growth of this cancer, whereby the life expectancy is higher than with normal radiation.

40. Zirconium

  • Number: 40
  • Symbol: Zr
  • Group: 4
  • Period: 5

This element, also called zircon, is extremely durable and has a natural appearance. In the form of zirconium crowns, it is therefore also used in dentistry. These are the strongest dental crowns. Incidentally, the element is also used in the manufacture of prostheses for operations in the hips, ears and fingers.

41. Niobium

  • Number: 41
  • Symbol: Nb
  • Group: 5
  • Period: 5

Niobium may sound exotic, but this element is interesting for its softness and ductility with a high melting temperature. It is comparable to the elements titanium, tantalum and zirconium and is used in jet engines and afterburners, among other things. The favorable properties of the metal also make it suitable for jewellery.

42. Molybdenum

  • Number: 42
  • Symbol: Mo
  • Group 6
  • Period: 5

Molybdenium has an important role in the metabolism in our body as a trace element. It is found in whole-grain cereal products, whole-wheat bread, legumes and nuts and many more foods. The body does not need much of this mineral.

43. Technetium

  • Number: 43
  • Symbol: Tc
  • Group 7
  • Period: 5

This element does not occur naturally on Earth, but it can be obtained in a radioactive form in nuclear reactors. It is used to fight cancer by giving beta radiation or when doing SPECT scans. In combination with other elements, it is sometimes added to steel.

44. Ruthenium

  • Number: 44
  • Symbol: Ru
  • Group 8
  • Period: 5

As a free metal, ruthenium occurs, sometimes in combination with osmium, platinum and iridium in South Africa and the Americas. It also belongs to the platinum group of metals, abbreviated as PGM. It is used to a small extent to increase the corrosion resistance of materials, but is otherwise very harmful to health.

45. Rhodium

  • Number: 45
  • Symbol: Rh
  • Group: 9
  • Period: 5

Rhodium also belongs to the platinum group and is widely used in jewelry, as it does not darken and does not oxidize over time. In jewelry it can give a shiny as well as matte appearance, where the color is very similar to silver.

46. Palladium

  • Number: 46
  • Symbol: Pd
  • Group: 10
  • Period: 5

Palladium is light gray and belongs to the precious metals. It is a very rare element and it is also very scarce, being loved in the jewelery industry. This is where 50 percent of the palladium extracted goes, after which 20 percent goes to the car industry as raw material for catalysts.

47. Silver

  • Number: 47
  • Symbol: Ag
  • Group: 11
  • Period: 5

Silver is one of the best-known elements and we all know it from the beautiful silver bracelets and necklaces at the jeweler. However, it has many more applications, such as in the photographic industry for the production of electronic devices. Silver ions can also kill algae, bacteria and fungi.

48. Cadmium

  • Number: 48
  • Symbol: CD
  • Group: 12
  • Period: 5

This element is a metal that is present in the Earth's crust is located. Small amounts of it are released into the environment when wildfires or volcanic eruptions occur. However, the largest part is released through mining, oil combustion and processing of metal products. Exposure is low.

49. Indium

  • Number: 49
  • Symbol: In
  • Group: 13
  • Period: 5

As number 49 in the periodic table, indium is a trace element and a soft metal. You've probably never heard of it, but this element can counteract the signs of aging and it's cheap in the form of a supplement too. It is not a required element for our body.

50. Tin

  • Number: 50
  • Symbol: Sn
  • Group: 14
  • Period: 5

Tin is a more well-known element, because of its use in soldering (tin solder) in, for example, plumbing. The element adheres well and easily to iron and therefore also serves as a rust-resistant layer in cans. By the way, tin is a flexible, malleable element, resistant to both salty seawater and freshwater.

51. Antimony

  • Number: 51
  • Symbol: Sb
  • Group: 15
  • Period: 5

Antimony is often used in the semiconductor industry for diodes, sensors and infrared detectors. In combination with other elements, it can provide strength and hardness in lead and tin. Antimony is also used for small arms. In toys and clothing, it is interesting because of its fire-resistant property.

52. Tellurium

  • Number: 52
  • Symbol: Te
  • Group: 16
  • Period: 5

Tellurium, also called tellurium, is primarily used for the production of thermoelectric devices. Other applications of this element are for ceramics and making solar panels. The latter occurs in combination with the element cadmium. Tellurium also plays a role in the cooling process of cast irons.

53. Jew

  • Number: 53
  • Symbol: I
  • Group: 17
  • Period: 5

Jew, or iodine, is known by the iodine tablets that are important in a nuclear accident. Radioactive iodine can then be taken up excessively by the thyroid gland and cause thyroid cancer. By taking the tablets, the thyroid gland becomes saturated and the radioactive variant of iodine is absorbed less quickly.

54. Xenon

  • Number: 54
  • Symbol: Xe
  • Group: 18
  • Period: 5

This colorless noble gas has various applications, an important one being the xenon lamp. This is because the element ensures a longer lifespan, lower energy consumption and higher light emission. It comes in handy in the automotive industry, as the driver has better visibility and therefore safer driving.

55. Cesium

  • Number: 55
  • Symbol: Cs
  • Group 1
  • Period: 6

Cesium is characterized by a silver-gold colored appearance. It occurs in small quantities in mineral water and can be used in electron tubes, photoelectric cells and in the glass and ceramic industry. The special thing about this element is that it is non-precious and therefore has to be stored in a special way.

56. Barium

  • Number: 56
  • Symbol: Ba
  • Group: 2
  • Period: 6

This element almost always occurs in combination with other elements because it is very reactive is. In this way it can be used in the oil and gas industry to lubricate jackhammers. It is also used in the form of a filler for plastic and rubber and gives a bright green color to signal fires and fireworks.

57. Lanthanum

  • Number: 57
  • Symbol: La
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

The flexibility, softness and formability of this element make it special. It is also one of the most reactive elements, making connections easy. In these compounds, the element is used for the production of glass, so that infrared glass, for example, is better absorbed and it is more resistant to bases.

58. Cerium

  • Number: 58
  • Symbol: Ce
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

This element is also flexible, soft and deformable and belongs to the lanthanide series. Cerium is named after the dwarf planet Ceres and has many commercial applications. Thus, it improves the corrosion resistance of aluminum and increases the heat resistance of magnesium in castings.

59. Praseodymium

  • Number: 59
  • Symbol: Pr
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

The element praseodymium is used to a limited extent. First, in combination with magnesium, it is used for aerospace engines. Secondly, it has an application in the glass industry to make glass turn yellow. The element is a soft metal and is stored under oil or in an airtight container.

60. Neodymium

  • Number: 60
  • Symbol: Nd
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

This element is important for the production of magnets, where magnets of the material are also known as super magnets. Even the smallest dimensions already have a very large magnetic force. The magnets are used for furniture, lighting systems, plastic and model making.

61. Promethium

  • Number: 61
  • Symbol: Pr
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

Promethium also falls under the lanthanides and is an element of which only radioactive isotopes exist with a short half-life. The element is named after the Greek mythological figure Prometheus, who is said to have given fire to man. The element is also used as a source of beta radiation and for nuclear batteries.

62. Samarium

  • Number: 62
  • Symbol: Sm
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

For the Nuclear medicine samarium is very useful, as it is used in this field to treat bone tumors. The radioactive substance is largely absorbed into the bones, where they can reduce the growth of tumors.

63. Europium

  • Number: 63
  • Symbol: Eu
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

This element was discovered in a mixture of samarium and gadolinium, from which it can be extracted. Pure europium is not really useful for industry, but in combination with other elements it is used for television picture tubes, in some plastics and as a luminescent substance in printing ink of five euro banknotes.

64. Gadolinium

  • Number: 64
  • Symbol: Gd
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

This element is at room temperature magnetic, but soon loses this property when you hold it. However, it can serve as a basis for the production of large, permanent magnets. Furthermore, gadolinium is a silver-white, shiny metal that can serve as a contrast medium in MRI scans.

65. Terbium

  • Number: 65
  • Symbol: Tb
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

Terbium is a soft element and easily deformable, which is easy to cut with a knife. Materials made of this element are, for example, crystals that give off light when broken. The element also has fluorescent properties and can change shape under the influence of a magnetic field.

66. Dysprosium

  • Number: 66
  • Symbol: Dy
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

The production of this element is less than a hundred tons per year, as the methods of isolating it have only recently existed. Its application is therefore also limited. It is used as a neutron trap in nuclear installations and can be used as a laser material in the same type of installations.

67. Holmium

  • Number: 67
  • Symbol: Ho
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

First of all, holmium is used in MRI scans to increase the resolution and concentrate the magnetic field. This is because the element has the highest magnetic moment. It also has applications in nuclear reactors as a neutron trap and in the glass industry as a yellow dye.

68. Erbium

  • Number: 68
  • Symbol: Er
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

Erbium has a special application in the treatment of the skin. A laser treatment with this element can ensure the disappearance of wrinkles, fine lines and crow's feet. After a week the result is already clearly visible, whereby acne scars can also be repaired. Erbium acts on the water in the skin.

69. Thulium

  • Number: 69
  • Symbol: Tm
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

Thulium is also an important element for use in lasers and is the least abundant on Earth, making it very expensive to use. After bombardment with neutrons, this element can serve as a source of X-rays. In the future, it can also serve as an energy source.

70. Ytterbium

  • Number: 70
  • Symbol: Yb
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

This element is highly radioactive and must be stored in sturdy containers sealed from air and moisture. It belongs to the rare heavy metals and the lanthanides and is clear, malleable, soft and silvery.

71. Lutetium

  • Number: 71
  • Symbol: Lu
  • Group 3
  • Period: 6

The last of the lanthanide series is the element lutetium. This element can be used in the fight against prostate cancer. This is another innovative treatment that can target tumors with precision and effectively inhibit growth. The treatment is aimed at prolonging life.

72. Hafnium

  • Number: 72
  • Symbol: Hf
  • Group: 4
  • Period: 6

This element belongs to the rare earths and is named after the place where it was discovered; Copenhagen, which in Latin is called Hafnia. Hafnium is used to strengthen the other elements iron, niobium and titanium. It also has applications in halogen lighting and nuclear weapons.

73. Tantalum

  • Number: 73
  • Symbol: Ta
  • Group: 5
  • Period: 6

Tantalum is also called tantalum and is the 73rd element in the periodic table used for making steel. This takes place in the form of alloys with nickel and cobalt. The material is used in the construction of devices and in the electronics sector.

74. Tungsten

  • Number: 74
  • Symbol: W
  • Group 6
  • Period: 6

As one of the better-known elements, tungsten is used, among other things, in exhaust pipes of jet engines and rockets. This is done in alloys with, for example, hafnium, niobium, tantalum or zirconium. In this form the element is very heat resistant and therefore extremely suitable for the aforementioned purposes and also for TIG welding.

75. Rhenium

  • Number: 75
  • Symbol: Re
  • Group 7
  • Period: 6

Rhenium is named after the river Rhine with its Latin name Rhenus. In addition to platinum, catalysts consist of the element to produce, for example, gasoline. This element is also resistant to high temperatures, making rhenium also suitable for jet engines. Finally, the element is used in filament in mass spectrometers.

76. Osmium

  • Number: 76
  • Symbol: Os
  • Group 8
  • Period: 6

This element has the highest density of all elements, with an espresso cup filled with osmium weighing more than one kilogram. Incidentally, it is almost as rare as gold and also occurs in nature in metallic form. It is used for fountain pen nibs, needles and electrical contacts.

77. Iridium

  • Number: 77
  • Symbol: Ir
  • Group: 9
  • Period: 6

Iridium is mainly used in the form of alloys, where the hardness of the element is important. For example, OLED displays, crucibles and points of compass needles and fountain pens are made from it. Iridium is also sometimes used in the arms industry and to color porcelain black.

78. Platinum

  • Number: 78
  • Symbol: Pt
  • Group: 10
  • Period: 6

Platinum is an important component in the automotive industry. The material has a grey-white gloss and is very malleable. This gloss is not quickly lost to the element and it is also resistant to corrosion. This makes it an attractive element for cars, which have to look good for a long time, and for jewellery.

79. Gold

  • Number: 79
  • Symbol: Au
  • Group: 11
  • Period: 6

We all know gold from the gold jewelry that is for sale and all kinds of other, often antique, gold objects. However, gold is used for much more, such as in mobile phones and in aerospace. The element is a precious metal and can reflect ultraviolet radiation well. This makes it suitable for example in heat shields on satellites.

80. Mercury

  • Number: 80
  • Symbol: Hg
  • Group: 12
  • Period: 6

As the only element that exists in liquid form at room temperature, mercury is quite special. It looks nice, but on the other hand it is extremely poisonous. It is mainly used for electronic purposes, in energy-saving lamps and to isolate gold from gold ore.

81. Thallium

  • Number: 81
  • Symbol: Tl
  • Group: 13
  • Period: 6

In combination with sulfate, thallium is odorless and tasteless, which is why it was widely used in the past as a poison against insects and rats. Nowadays this is no longer allowed, so the element has applications in photocells, crystals for infrared, optical equipment and for glass with a high refractive index.

82. Lead

  • Number: 82
  • Symbol: Pb
  • Group: 14
  • Period: 6

First of all, lead is used to protect healthcare personnel when taking photos that release radiation, such as X-rays. It is a flexible, blue-grey, soft material with a high weight. It is used in homes and buildings to seal cracks and is also used for beautiful stained glass windows.

83. Bismuth

  • Number: 83
  • Symbol: Bi
  • Group: 15
  • Period: 6

Bismuth is a brittle, heavy metal which is white colored and has a silver-pink luster. It is also derived from the German Wismut, which stands for white matter. It is the only heavy metal that is not toxic and the crystals grow at an irregular rate. This gives a stepped structure, suitable as gemstones.

84. Polonium

  • Number: 84
  • Symbol: Po
  • Group: 16
  • Period: 6

Polonium can be used as gif be used, as it has sometimes emerged in the media. The material is actually one of the rarest elements in the world and occurs in low concentrations in the Earth's crust. It is also produced in nuclear reactors to prevent static electricity in devices.

85. Astate

  • Number: 85
  • Symbol: At
  • Group: 17
  • Period: 6

Even rarer than polonium is the element astate, so rare that it is unknown what it looks like. Incidentally, an amount large enough to see with the naked eye would immediately evaporate. This is due to the element's intense radioactivity.

86. Radon

  • Number: 86
  • Symbol: Rn
  • Group: 18
  • Period: 6

As a radioactive gas, radon is naturally released from soil and building materials. Substances that arise from the decay of the gas can be harmful to health, making it important to ventilate homes. As a result, its concentration can be kept low, preventing consequences, such as lung cancer.

87. Francium

  • Number: 87
  • Symbol: Fr
  • Group 1
  • Period: 7

The element francium occurs on Earth in very small amounts, about 30 grams. This is because it arises from decay of actinium, which is a slow process, and subsequently also has a short life. As the heaviest alkali metal, francium is used as a neutron source in combination with radium for radiological research.

88. Radium

  • Number: 88
  • Symbol: Ra
  • Group: 2
  • Period: 7

Radium is therefore important in performing radiological examination, for example in the fight against prostate cancer. This only happens in cases of castration-resistant prostate cancer, where metastases have occurred to the bones. The element locally emits radiation, which slows down the growth of cancer cells.

89. Actinium

  • Number: 89
  • Symbol: Ac
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

Actinium can also be used to fight cancer. It specifically binds to tumor cells, after which it literally blasts the cells to pieces. In addition, it is used as a neutron source and as radio-immunotherapy. Furthermore, few industrial applications of the element are known.

90. Thorium

  • Number: 90
  • Symbol: Th
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

Thorium occurs naturally in the Earth's crust in the minerals mozanite, thorite and thorianite. It is a waste product from the extraction of rare earth metals and is used in electronics such as telephones. It is also used in the generation of nuclear energy, which prevents the release of greenhouse gases.

91. Protactinium

  • Number: 90
  • Symbol: Pa
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

Protactinium is a dense, silver-colored metal that reacts readily with inorganic acids, water vapor and oxygen. The element is scarce and has a high toxicity, which means that it is only used for scientific research. It is often extracted from spent nuclear fuel. It is obtained in nuclear reactors and can be separated from uranium ore.

92. Uranium

  • Number: 92
  • Symbol: U
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

This element may sound a bit alien, but it is really in the substrate of the earth as ore. Here it serves as fuel for nuclear reactors and as a radioactive metal can also be used as an energy source. In this form, in small quantities, it can meet today's energy demand for a century.

93. Neptune

  • Number: 93
  • Symbol: Np
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

Neptunium, like the previous four elements, falls under the category of actinides in the periodic table. It is a reactive metal with at least three crystal structures. Its application in industry is quite limited, but it is already being used for the development of weapons of mass destruction in the United States.

94. Plutonium

  • Number: 94
  • Symbol: Pu
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

This silvery white actinide has been named the world's most dangerous element and was first produced in 1941. Its known application is for the production of nuclear bombs, for which only fifteen kilos is enough, but it has no further applications yet. It is toxic and gives off cancer-causing alpha radiation.

95. America

  • Number: 95
  • Symbol: Am
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

As might have been expected, the name of this element comes from the continent of America, the place of discovery. It is obtained by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. It is used as a source of ionizing radiation and gamma radiation for medical use.

96. Curium

  • Number: 96
  • Symbol: cm
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

The element curium is only available to a limited extent for use and for this reason it is only used for scientific purposes. For example, it would be used as a thermoelectric source and as an alpha source for the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer. Among other things, this device was sent to the planet Mars for research.

97. Berkelium

  • Number: 97
  • Symbol: Bk
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

Berkelium is obtained by bombarding the element americium with neutrons and the name of the element comes from the American University Berkeley. This is because the element is synthesized for the first time in this setting. Production is very low and it is only used for scientific research.

98. California

  • Number: 98
  • Symbol: Cf
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

This element is also derived from an American University, the University of California, where it was discovered. Before its discovery, curium was bombarded with alpha particles. It is also available in small quantities and is used for radiological research as a source of neutrons in the detection of silver and gold.

99. Einsteinium

  • Number: 99
  • Symbol: Es
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

In its pure form, this element, named after scientist Albert Einstein, is very strong, radioactive and a heavy metal. Except for the production of mendelevium, no application has been found for this element. Mendelevium, in turn, is also an element of the periodic table.

100. Fermium

  • Number: 100
  • Symbol: Fm
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

After an initial test with a hydrogen bomb, a metal remained in the rubble, later known as fermium. The very intense heat of this bomb and the pressure of the explosion when it detonated had created fermium. This probably happened due to the fusion of 17 neutrons with a uranium nucleus.

101. Mendelevium

  • Number: 101
  • Symbol: Md
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

As mentioned earlier, this element is produced by means of the intermediate element einsteinium. This is bombarded in a cyclotron with alpha particles to produce mendelevium. The element does not occur naturally on earth and it has no industrial applications yet.

102. Nobelium

  • Number: 102
  • Symbol: No
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

The 102nd element is nobelium, a gray or silvery white actinide, which is obtained by bombarding curium with a Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator (HILAC). The Nobel Institute in Stockholm reported the discovery of the element, which is why it is named after it. It is used for small-scale research, but has no further applications yet.

103. Lawrencia

  • Number: 103
  • Symbol: Lr
  • Group 3
  • Period: 7

Lawrencium is the last actinide in the list and is named after Ernest Lawrence. This was the inventor of the cyclotron, which is a circular particle accelerator in which many mentioned elements can be made. There are also no applications for this actinide and almost no properties of the element are known.

104. Rutherfordium

  • Number: 104
  • Symbol: Rf
  • Group: 4
  • Period: 7

This element is named after Ernest Rutherford, for which no industrial applications have yet been found. The element is highly radioactive and unstable, with a half-life of only 65 seconds. Chemically speaking, it does have many similarities with the element hafnium.

105. Dubnium

  • Number: 105
  • Symbol: Db
  • Group: 5
  • Period: 7

Dubnium is named after a city in Russia, Dubna, where it was also first produced. Applications of the element are for now only for science. The element is obtained by bombarding americium with neon. Little is known about the physical and chemical properties.

106. Seaborgium

  • Number: 106
  • Symbol: Sg
  • Group 6
  • Period: 7

This gray or silvery white transition metal is also named after a scientist, namely Glenn Seaborg. No practical applications have yet been found for the element. In the periodic table, seaborgium is directly below the element tungsten, with which it would also share many chemical properties. It does not occur freely in nature on Earth.

107. Bohrium

  • Number: 107
  • Symbol: Bra
  • Group 7
  • Period: 7

Bohrium is named after the famous Danish Niels Bohr. It is a radioactive, synthetic element with a low half-life. This means that this laboratory-made element has not been around for long and therefore has no applications. The low half-life also makes it difficult to discover chemical properties.

108. Hassium

  • Number: 108
  • Symbol: Hs
  • Group 8
  • Period: 7

Hassium is a transuranic element, which means it an atomic number has that greater than that of uranium, which is 92. This also means that it does not occur naturally on Earth and is a radioactive element.

109. Meitnerium

  • Number: 109
  • Symbol: Mt
  • Group: 9
  • Period: 7

The life of this element is very short and only a small amount has been produced. As far as is known, it shows many similarities with the element iridium, for example having the same color. The element is derived from the scientist Lisa Meitner.

110. Darmstadtium

  • Number: 110
  • Symbol: Ds
  • Group: 10
  • Period: 7

This element is named after the German city Darmstadt, where this element was first produced. There are no applications for it yet, as it has a short lifespan, making research into the properties of the element more difficult. The element does not exist on Earth and is therefore obtained artificially.

111. X-ray

  • Number: 111
  • Symbol: Rg
  • Group: 11
  • Period: 7

This element is also called roentgenium, after the scientist Wilhelm Röntgen. The element decays very quickly into the element meitnerium and has a high atomic weight of up to 272. This makes it one of the super heavy atoms. It belongs to the transition metals, just like gold, silver and copper.

112. Copernicium

  • Number: 112
  • Symbol: Cn
  • Group: 12
  • Period: 7

Copernicium is the 112th element in the periodic table and is named after the famous astronomer Nicholas Copernicus. He is the founder of the heliocentric worldview, which explains that the earth revolves around the sun. This element does not occur in nature, as its half-life is only 240 microseconds.

113. Nihonium

  • Number: 113
  • Symbol: Nh
  • Group: 13
  • Period: 7

Nihonium is a free young element, which was first discovered in 2003. This element also has a low half-life of only 1.2 seconds. There are also no applications for the synthetic element yet. His name is derived from Nihon, which means Japan in Japanese.

114. Flerovium

  • Number: 114
  • Symbol: Fl
  • Group: 14
  • Period: 7

Flerovium can be obtained by shooting calcium atoms against atoms of plutonium. After about 21 seconds, this element decays back into the element copernicium. The element is named after nuclear physicist Georgi Flerov and is only used for scientific research. Health effects of the element cannot be traced through its instability.

115. Moscow

  • Number: 115
  • Symbol: Mc
  • Group: 15
  • Period: 7

This element is a heavy element, made by bombarding americium with calcium. Moscovium itself, named after Moscow in Russia, decays back to nihonium by the emission of an alpha particle. In 2015, the existence of this element was only officially confirmed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

116. Livermorium

  • Number: 116
  • Symbol: Lv
  • Group: 16
  • Period: 7

In 1999, the discovery of this element was confirmed, which happened at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This institute is located in Livermore, California in the United States. The name of the element has also been given to this institute, which was approved by the IUPAC in 2012.

117. Tennessine

  • Number: 117
  • Symbol: Ts
  • Group: 17
  • Period: 7

The name of this element refers to the US state Tennessee, where much research is taking place on this and other superheavy element. In addition to being super heavy, the element is also very radioactive, unstable and has an extremely short lifespan.

118. Organesson

  • Number: 118
  • Symbol: Og
  • Group: 18
  • Period: 7

For the time being, Organesson always belongs to the group of noble gases, such as helium, argon and radon, for example. It is the last element to be officially recognized by the IUPAC in 2016 and included in the periodic table. The name honors the scientist Yuri Oganesian.

119. Ununennium

  • Number: 119
  • Symbol: Uue
  • Group 1
  • Period: 8

Also referred to as eka-francium is the element ununennium, which has not yet been given a name. Like the next three elements, it is also in the unknown eighth period of the periodic table. It has not yet been named as it is only a hypothetical element.

120. Unbinilium

  • Number: 120
  • Symbol: Ubn
  • Group: 2
  • Period: 8

Unbinilium, also called eka-radium, is also a hypothetical element and is considered a seventh alkaline earth metal. This means that it can have similar properties to its lighter counterparts, such as calcium, magnesium and radium. It probably also belongs to the category of transactinide elements due to its atomic number greater than 103.

121. Unbiunium

  • Number: 121
  • Symbol: Ubu
  • Group 3
  • Period: 8

Eka-actinium is the second name for this third hypothetical element with atomic number 121. Unbiunium is the temporary, systematic name of the IUPAC until the element is really discovered. The name stands for the atomic number of the element in Latin. This element is expected to be the first super-actinide and the third element in the eighth period.

122. Unbibium

  • Number: 122
  • Symbol: Ubb
  • Group 3
  • Period: 8

Unbibium is the 122nd and last element in the periodic table of elements and is also referred to as ekathorium. This element is also a hypothetical element, which was already found in 2008 in a university in Jerusalem. This would be a naturally occurring deposit of the element thorium.